Keynote 4 - ICEDEG 2024

The Rise of Citizen-To-Citizen (C2c) Networks in Digital Government and their Regulation


The electronic interactions of citizens (i.e., individuals, citizens, residents, end-users) between each other enable them to contribute to digital transformation in the public domain and digital government. These Citizen to Citizen (C2C) networks can add public value to current e-government services and support the development of new public services. For example, an examination of the crisis relief efforts such as pandemics and disasters in countries such as Turkey, Australia, and Ghana shows that demand for increased administrative and financial capacity of the state sharply rises in such emergencies. As the emergency management capacity of government agencies is often unable to meet this demand, C2C networks use numerous technologies. Other examples of disaster informatics, crowdsourcing, crowdfunding, and crowd law from Chile, France, and the US also showcase C2C networks in actionUnderstanding the evolving nature, increasing occurrence, and various outcomes of these C2C networks is important for government officials, as they can supplement government capacity in crises and enable citizens to contribute to providing services. This presentation covers C2C networks’ key benefits and potential risks, such as creating a new type of digital divide or threats to privacy, and the discussions focusing on different viewpoints on their regulation by governments, based on examples from countries such as the Netherlands and Russia. This keynote speech is based on the article (Saylam, A., & Yıldız, M. (2022). Conceptualizing citizen-to-citizen (C2C) interactions within the E-government domain. Government Information Quarterly, 39(1), 101655).


Prof. Mete Yıldız is a Senior Research Analyst at the United Nations University (UNU-EGOV) since 2022. He is also a Public Administration and Policy Professor at Hacettepe University, Turkey. He is an expert on digital government and public policy analysis. He has taught classes (i.e., digital government, technology policies, comparative public administration, government reform). He has been to Indiana University (USA) and Sapienza University of Rome (Italy) as a visiting professor. From 2014 to 2016, he was a consultant to the Turkish Government while preparing the National E-Government Strategy and Action Plan. He consulted UNICEF, the Turkish Scientific and Technological Research Council, the Turkish Public Administration Institute, and the Ministries of Interior and Family and Social Policies about digital government and public policy analysis. Mete Yildiz acted as a rapporteur of the e-government report for the 11th Turkish Development Plan in 2018 and served as the founding chairman of public policy studies at Hacettepe University from 2014 to 2022. Mete Yıldız has written several books and numerous articles extensively about digital government and technology policies. One of his articles received more than 1500 citations in Google Scholar.



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24 - 26 June 2024
Lucerne, Switzerland

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